4. LA CONSTITUCIÓN (1787) Y LA DECLARACIÓN DE DERECHOS (1788)

Resultado de imagen para estados unidos

4. LA CONSTITUCIÓN (1787) Y LA DECLARACIÓN DE DERECHOS (1788)
Desde hace cincuenta años no se deja de repetir a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos que ellos constituyen el único pueblo religioso, ilustrado y libre. Ven que hasta el presente las instituciones democráticas prosperan en su país, al tiempo que fracasan en el resto del mundo; tienen, pues, una elevada opinión de sí mismos, y no están lejos de creer que forman una especie aparte en el género humano. (Tocqueville, La democracia en América, I, 2ª, 10)
Comentario: Tocqueville comprobó que el sentimiento de superioridad moral era uno de los hitos de la mentalidad estadounidense. A diferencia de la ideología antirreligiosa revolucionaria francesa, en EE.UU. se hermanaban después de la Independencia, libertad e ilustración con el sentimiento religioso. No hubo paralelismo con las persecuciones sangrientas que tuvieron lugar durante la Revolución francesa contra la Iglesia y los católicos.
Los norteamericanos reunieron, desde los primeros tiempos, una población dotada de un nivel de estudios y capacitación elevados, con inmensos recursos naturales que estaban a su disposición, sin apenas costes de adquisición. En la carrera competitiva que caracteriza a la economía capitalista, los EE.UU. se posicionaron en la pole position, junto con Gran Bretaña, Francia...
5. THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Article. I. Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section. 2. Clause 3: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons… The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative...
Section. 3. Clause 1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State...
Section. 8. Clause 1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; Clause 2: To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; Clause 3: To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; […] Clause 5: To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; […] ; Clause 9: To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; Clause 10: To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations; Clause 11: To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; Clause 12: To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; […] Clause 15: To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; […] --And Clause 18: To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
Section. 9. Clause 1: The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
Clause 3: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. Clause 4: No Capitation, or other
direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken…
Article. II. Section. 1. Clause 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows Clause […)
Article. III. Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.[…)
Section. 2. Clause 3: The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury…
Article. IV. Section. 2. Clause 3: No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
G. WASHINGTON--President and deputy from Virginia [Signed also by the deputies of twelve States: Delaware - Maryland - Virginia - North Carolina - South Carolina - Georgia - New Hampshire - Massachusetts - Connecticut - New York - New Jersey - Pennsylvania )
Comentario: Con la fórmula inicial “nosotros, el pueblo”, la Constitución apela directamente al pueblo norteamericano como fundamento de la legitimidad y origen de la soberanía, lo que implica que ésta no deriva de los estados preexistentes, sino que está por encima de ellos y el estado federal no se debe a los estados sino al pueblo norteamericano. Al ser aprobada la Constitución, el régimen confederal existente desde la Independencia, dio paso la Unión federal. Cuando los estados del Sur se aparten de ella, en 1860, lo harán para constituir una Confederación de estados soberanos asociados.
La Constitución articula el poder legislativo en el Senado y la Cámara de Representantes, el judicial en el Tribunal Supremo; regula la formación de las cámaras, el Senado mediante dos representantes por cada estado; la Cámara de Representantes en función de la población de cada estado.
La Constitución admite la existencia de la esclavitud, aunque sin nombrarla; los esclavos carecen de derechos políticos, pero cuentan como 3/5 de persona en el recuento de población a fines de representación para la Cámara de Representantes (t.46).

Fuente: HISTORIA de ESTADOS UNIDOS
Selección de textos y notas por Jesús M. Sáez
Alicante, 2014

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